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Elements of plumbing

Reconnoiter repairs, installs, modifies, and maintains plumbing fixtures in heating, water and drainage systems.


Recognize electrical, plumbing and safety problems apposite to the installation and takes essential corrective action.

Carry out essential clerical duties for the job and is able to read blueprints.

Vindicate a high school diploma or it is equivalent with leastwise 5 years of experience in the field or in a concerned area.

May be constituent to meet particular certifications in plumbing.

Familiar with a variety of the field’s concopts, practices, and procedures.

Confide on experience and judgment to plan and execute goals.

Carry out a different of complicated tasks.

Manage and leads the work of others.

A particular degree of the creativity and latitude is necessary.

Licensing of plumbers and their functions

The Plumbers Licensing Board is placed by Part 5A of the Plumbers Licensing Act 1995. The Act entrust the Board with 4 primary functions:

✓ To instruct matters relating to the qualification and training of plumbers.

✓ To advise the Minister for commerce relating to the licensing and regulation of plunlbers.

✓ To admimster the plumber licensing scheme.

✓ To perform licensing and disciplinary functions.

The functions of the Board are, in relation to the trades of plumbing and draining:

1. By means of examinations or otherwise, to assess the qualifications and suitability of persons to practice those trades; and

2. To issue or cancel reciprocity certificates for advanced tradesmen and journeymen; and

3. To issue, renew, suspend, cancel or reinstate:

4. Registration cards for journeymen; and

5. Licenses for advanced tradesmen; and

6. To issue replacement copies of lost or destroyed licenses and registration cards; and

7. To maintain a register or registers of advanced tradesmen and journeymen; and

8. To enforce the provisions of this Act; and

9. To request and receive reports relating to inspections carried out under any of the prescribed Acts in relation to offences against any of those Acts or the workmanship of licensed plumbers or drainers or journeymen; and

10. To undertake such other functions as the Minister from time to time directs it to  undertake in relation to the examination, licensing and registration of persons practicing or seeking to practice those trades.

In carrying out its functions the Board may:

1. Make the Inquiries, the Board considers appropriate relating to:

(i) An application for a license or registration card; or

(ii) The cancellation or suspension of a license or registration card; or

(III) An application for a reciprocity certificate; and

2. Conduct hearings at which it may call and examine witnesses and hear evidence; and

3. Join appropriate associations of licensing or examining authorities and co-operate with other licencing or examining authorities; and

4. Collect the fees or charges prescribed for the issue, renewal or replacement of licenses and registration cards; and

5. In its discretion remit all or part of prescribed license fee where an applicant for license is employed solely in a teaching capacity; and

6. Do all other things which it considers necessary or convenient for and incidental to the functions.

Supply pipes

A supply pipe is a plumbing line which is used to supply water to fixtures thoroughly homes and commercial buildings.

Those supply lines may connect to fixtures like this as sinks, showers, bathtubs, toilets, and outdoor hose connectors.

Simultaneously, the supply pipes and a second set of return or wastewater piping make up a complete plumbing system.

The water which runs through a supply pipe enters the home by main water line, that is equipped with some form of shut-off valve or meter.


Sometime the water enters the home, the supply pipe splits into two individual piping systems.

One passes through the hot water heater to make hot water when the other continues through the home to carriage cold water to the plumbing fixtures.

There are a number of various types of plumbing systems which include different water supply lines.

The most elementary is a looped system, there a single supply pipe carries water to all fixtures on all floors of the home.

Branched systems are more intricate, and consist of a main supply line which has branched into different floors or areas using divers pipes.

Sizing procedure for supply pipes:

The process below is followed by an explanation of each step with adequate examples.

✓ Assume a pipe diameter.

✓  Detennine the flow rate:

(a) By using loading units;

(b)  For continuous flows:

(c) Obtain the design flow ale by adding(a) and (b).

✓ Determine the effective pipe length:

(d) Work out the measured pipe length:

(e) Work out the identical pipe length for fittings;

(f) Work out the identical pipe length for draw offs;

(g) Acquired the effective pipe length by adding (d), (e) and (f).

✓ Calculate the permissible head loss

(h) Determined the available head:

(i) Determined the head loss per metre run through.

(j) Determined the head loss through fittings; (k) Calculate the permissible head loss.

✓ Detennine the pipe diameter.

(a) Decide if the assumed pipe size will given.

Pipes Joints & Fittings

Types of Pipe :

✓ PVC Pipes

PVC stands for Polyvinyl Chloride. This type has a wide different of plumbing uses from-drainage pipe to water mains.

It’s most usually used for irrigation piping, home, and building supply piping. PVC is also very conventional in pool and spa systems.

PVC is mostly white but it can also come in a wide difference of colors.


You can mostly tell that it is used for by the colors and marking on the pipe. For instance purple pipe with black lettering is used for reclaimed water.

PVC also comes in a different of thicknesses named schedules. Schedules 40 being the most common for water supply.

PVC pipe should always be neatly labeled if it’s used for both potable (drinkable) and non potable water in the same building.

PVC joins are made by using a primer which- melt the PVC and after applying PVC glue which melts the joints and pipe together.

✓ Copper pipes

This type of pipe is commonly used for hot and cold water supply as well as being daily used in HVAC systems for refrigerant lines.

Copper piping works in both underground and aboveground solicitations, but copper can be influenced by some soils and should be sleeved if used underground.

Because of the price of copper and longer labor needed to install more builders are ‘Switching to alternative water supply Piping like PEX.


✓ Cast Iron (CI) Pipes-

These pipes are Commonly used in water distribution. They are well matched for pressure and can withstand emerged load because of their thickness.

The pipes are simple in manufacturing, layout and joining. Those pipes are manufactured by vertical casting in the sand moulds, horizontal casting in the sand moulds and centrifugal casting (spun casting pupes).


CI pipes are bulky in weight. So, transportation is costlier and they are not suitable for inaccessible places. Due to bulky weight those are generally made in short length. This raises  layout and jointing cost.

CI vertical casting pipes are not of immensely good quality and can be replaced by centrifugal casting (spup casting) pipes.

✓ Galvanized Pipe-

Galvanized pipe is a zinc coated steel or iron pipe. This galvanized coating protects the water from eating up the pipe. Due to the amount of work which goes into cutting, threading, and installing galvanized pipe it is not applicabled in homes very often any more.


Galvanized pipe is still considered a safe distribution for drinking water and is still seen in larger commercial applications for water distribution. Although you have a pre-1970s house you could still have galvanized water lines in your house though it has not been re-piped.

Joints in pipes 

Prestressed concrete pressure pipes re designed to with stand all stress that the designed engineer expects during service.

Pipes must safely resist the internal working pressures including water hammer effect and vacuum pressure.

When a pipe line is subjected to pressure, tensile stresses are created in the pipe wall. Compressive strength of concrete is remarkably high but the tensile strength of concrete is remarkably poor.


To get the best benefit, the core concrete is kept in compression under natural working pressure.

And the objective of helical prestressing is to propagate uniform compressive stresses in pipe wall to offset tensile stresses resulting from internal pressure. Dead and live loads.

The water tightness between two pipes is convinced by a rubber rng conforming to Indian Standard specifications. At the joining. The ring placed ink groove, is compressed between the joined surface of the spigot and socket.

Internal pressure further increases the compression of the rubber ring and the water tightness of the joint remain perfectly efficient during the service.

The jointing operation is a very straight one as it is sufficient to initiate the spigot, fitted with rubber ring, into the pipe socket and to pull it home by means of a lever/ tackle or any other device.

Hence the water tightness of the pipeline is closely examined when line tests are carried out at site.

About post: Here in this article has covered the elements and purpose of plumbing licensing of plumbers, supply Pipe, types and joints of pipe.