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Geographic Information System (GIS)

Geographical information system is played a exigent role to restore and develop civilisations from the Stone Age to modern days.

Geographical information within the sort of spatial database has served the human society for his or her advancement.

And therefore the inventions, planning for better living and actually the trendy civilisation has achieved much by using the knowledge of abstract geography.

Geographic Information System [GIS]

Geographic information system (GIS) refers to the system accustomed define and characterise the world and other geographical features over it, for the aim of analysing spatially referenced information.

The knowledge acquired is employed to unravel real-life problems.

In real world the uses of spatial data involves data acquisition, storage, manipulation, maintenance and output.

In earlier days, this has been restricted within analog databases manual processing and paper map.

GIS (Geographical information system) has become sophisticated at the present time by data acquiring methodology from analog to digital system and introduction of the computers.

This introduction of the digital system with computer interfacing not only saves money and time but also makes GIS accurate to an excellent extent.

The location of important spatial information like mountains, hills, river flow, etc., accompanied with attributes like their sizes, heights, areas, velocity of flow simultaneously are collected by manipulation through GIS.

Manipulation of spatial information with attributes ( i.e. the particular information of specific objects) are often finished sophisticated computers very easily and more accurately which was beyond imagination within the paper-map age.

GIS handles a spread of software and differing types of computers over a serversupported system.

The acquired information is stored digitally and analysed to depict within the sort of a map with CAD software.

History of Geographical information system

The GIS history dates back to 1960 with preface of computer-based Geographical information system (GIS) though the manual procedures were quite 100 years ancient.

And in 1815, Cartogram map, with black and white shading to explain the literacy rate in France, was considered the primary modern statistical map in respect of GIS.

Within the year 1855, Dr. John Snow of England used a ‘dot map’ to explain the cholera epidemic.

In 1884, the Pictogram was employed by Georg Mulhall to explain the traffic density in England.

The important advancement during this area came with the innovation of punched card by Hollerith in 1884 in USA.

In 1944, with the invention of the primary computer by H. Aiken and G. Hopper in USA, GIS got a replacement dimension.

Initial development in computer-based GIS was done by combing spatial data with spatial models and map-based visualisation.

The first computer-based GIS was invented by Roger Tomilson in Canada to analyse the info of Canada land inventory.

The modern-day approach in GIS is as follows:

1. Use of speed scanner of high-density-area object for coding and decoding motives,

2. Manipulation of scanned images,

3. Thematic layering of exorcisms with spatial actuality, and

4. Use of superlative coordinate system for data sharing options over the world .

In India, GIS was developed and used since the last 15 years in National Resource Management.

Integrated Mission for Sustainable Development (IMSD), National Resource information system (NRIS) are some leading institutions working during this field.

Importance of GIS (Geographical information system)

Nowadays, Geographical information system is employed publicly sectors also as in business, commercial activities and repair as a compulsory measure.

The technique is adopted to stop the pollution of environmental, epidemis and also to require prior measures to combat natural disasters.

Geographic Information System [GIS]

And the introduction of computer-based GIS saves extensive amounts money in functioning of the govt and commercial houses specially in providing services.

Providing short routes in establishing linkage mechanisms among the various places and to playing sewer lines during a specific area, considering the thing details, are often done very easily by this system .

The importance of GIS in recent years is to assess the natural resources, food sources within the age of a growing population.

Resources within the sort of food, shelter, energy will be identified and allocated very precisely by using GIS tools.

Definition of GIS (Geographical information system)

A geographic information system defined as a system of capturing, storing and manipulating spatial information in digital form with the assistance of hardware and software to analyse and present the features of the world .

Actually, there’s no specific definition of GIS. Nations everywhere the planet ascertain GIS consistent with the aim of its use. a number of them are as follows:

1. A computer-based system due to the capture, storage, retrieval analysis and exhibition of the spatial data, within a specific organization (Stillwell & Clarke, 1987).

2. a strong set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving at will, transforming and displaying spatial data from the important world (Burrough, 1987).

3. A geographic information system is defined as (Aronoff, 1989) A computer-based system that gives the subsequent four sets of capabilities to handle geo-referenced data:

✓ Input,

✓ Data management (storage and retrieval),

✓ Manipulation and analysis, and

✓ Output.

The GIS is essentially a system by which spatial data in digital form is analysed, manipulated and displayed with the help of integration of computer software and hardware.

GIS Components

A effectual GIS operation imperatives hardware , GIS software, spatial data and attributes, people and a well-defined, disciplined methodology of operation.

An integration of all 5 components simultaneously exhibits a GIS.

1. GIS Hardware

The hardware in GIS means a computer having large memory space for acquiring databases with highly sophisticated displaying facility.

In GIS, small PCs to large computers are used depending upon the character of the work .

And for the foremost cases for conjunction of various data references, quite one computer is employed .

The computers are connected to a standard server during operation.

2. GIS Software

The GIS software is used to collect, analyse and display the spatial information.
Software actually plays the key role for manipulation in the case of data collected in different scales and premections.
In case of retrieval of data structure by using attributes with spatial selection of software is very important.
For handling the spatial information than geographic features, use of CAD software is very popular.
ArcGIS is software which is  conunonly used in environmental reaches.


3. Data

Data the backbone of GIS. The spatial data and tabular data are combined to form a data structure for GIS. Actually, there are two types of data in a GIS.
One is spatial data collected from satellite monitoring, photogrammetry or other similar types of linkage in the of digital imaging system.
The other type of data is attributes to spatial information, mostly of measurement related to the existing database,

4. People

The success of GIS is judged by the end users. Some of the users are interested to use its technical aspects, and a respectable number of people use it for solving their real-life problems.
The co-relations between professional GIS end users are very important for successful implementation of a GIS.

5. Methodology

The comprehensive approach is essential for implementation of Geographical information system for the people at large.
So, the well-defined methodology with an integrated approach in GIS is required.
Hiring of correct hardware and software for different types of GIS and extracting data appropriately for the purpose is an important part of this methodology.

Monitoring, Measurement, Mapping and Modelling in GIS

These are commonly known as the four Ms of GIS.
In geographic information system, generally the environmental parameters in the form of spatial information and their attributes are measured, to develop a map by drawing each character using CAD, monitor changes taking place with reference to surroundings and time and also develop some model for operational purposes.

1. Representation of Geospatial Data

The geospatial object is represented in the form Of either a point, line or a polygon in grid pattern or in vector form.
(i) Point represents a spatial object having no area only with reference to a certain coordinate system, i.e. latitude, longitude, etc.
(ii) Line represents the spatial object with no width and located from any one side.
(iii) Polygon represents spatial information of a closed area.

2. Modelling of Data

Data modelling refers to the computerisation of different spatial objects as per the real-world discrimination or differences.
There are two types of models in data Structuring:

(i) Raster Model

In this model, a number of cells having definite coordinates are used. Each cell is used to represent an attribute.
Each cell forms a single layer. The model requires huge volume of data for storage.

(ii) Vector Model

 Representation of objects in this model is either in point or line form, a definite coordinate (x,y) system.

3. Layering of Data

The spatial information and attributes refer to geographical features of different objects on the earth’s surface like rivers, forests, roads, etc.
Each such object is collected and stored in GIS by layer form, for their discrimination.
The storage of huge volumes of such data is combined together by superimposing to form a single layer.
Geographic Information System [GIS]
This layer concept is also taken into account by different models available in Geographic Information System (GIS).
This practice of data storage is known as  thematic layering.
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In this post we have covered the all details of Geographical information system (GIS), basics, history, importance, definition, components of Geographical information system.